Σκοπός

Σκοπός του Προγράμματος Φαρμακευτικής είναι η παροχή υψηλού επιπέδου εκπαίδευσης για την προετοιμασία επαγγελματιών Φαρμακοποιών, επιστημόνων ειδικών στον τομέα φαρμάκων και με ικανότητες να ανταποκριθούν με επιτυχία στον ιδιωτικό τομέα στελεχώνοντας φαρμακεία, νοσοκομεία, κλινικές, κέντρα υγείας, τη βιομηχανία φαρμάκων και καλλυντικών ή στελεχώνοντας κρατικές υπηρεσίες, όπως νοσοκομεία, υπουργεία και άλλους φορείς υγείας. Το Πρόγραμμα προσφέρει το ακαδημαϊκό υπόβαθρο για να προετοιμάσει τους φοιτητές με τέτοιο τρόπο, ώστε να καταστούν όχι μόνον ειδικοί για το προϊόν που διακινούν, αλλά και ικανοί να συμβουλεύσουν με υπευθυνότητα και επιστημονική επάρκεια το κοινό για τη χρήση, την ασφάλεια, τις αλληλεπιδράσεις των φαρμάκων με άλλα φάρμακα ή τρόφιμα, για τα δηλητήρια και τα ναρκωτικά. Επιπλέον, οι πτυχιούχοι του Τμήματος αυτού θα είναι ειδικοί σε θέματα σχεδιασμού, ανάπτυξης, παρασκευής, αλλοίωσης, ελέγχου, δράσης και χρήσης φαρμάκων και καλλυντικών. Ακόμη, θα είναι ειδικοί στην ανάπτυξη και εκμετάλλευση της τοπικής χλωρίδας και την αξιοποίησή της από γεωργική, εμπορική και επιστημονική άποψη. Θα είναι αρμόδιοι για την παραλαβή αρωματικών και φυτοφαρμακευτικών προϊόντων και σχετικών πρώτων υλών.

Μέσα από ένα ολοκληρωμένο ακαδημαϊκό υπόβαθρο και πρακτική εξάσκηση οι φοιτητές θα είναι σε θέση να αντιμετωπίζουν επιτυχώς τις διαρκείς και ραγδαίες εξελίξεις και αυξανόμενες απαιτήσεις της Φαρμακευτικής Επιστήμης και Τεχνολογίας. Τέλος, θα έχουν τις απαραίτητες ικανότητες να διεξάγουν υψηλού επιπέδου έρευνα και να σκέπτονται μεθοδικά και συνοπτικά, ώστε να προβλέπουν τάσεις στη φαρμακοθεραπευτική, στην καινοτομία, παραγωγή, χρήση και κατάχρηση φαρμάκων.

Εργαστήρια
Το Πρόγραμμα Φαρμακευτικής υποστηρίζεται από τα πιο κάτω εργαστήρια:

  • Χημείας
  • Βιολογίας και Βιοχημείας
  • Φαρμακευτικής Ανάλυσης

Για την κάλυψη των αναγκών του Προγράμματος υπάρχει πρόσβαση σε άλλα τρία εργαστήρια του Πανεπιστημίου: το εργαστήριο Φυσικής, το εργαστήριο Ανατομίας και Φυσιολογίας και το εργαστήριο Πληροφορικής. Επίσης, το Πρόγραμμα στηρίζεται από τη Βιβλιοθήκη του Πανεπιστημίου, η οποία εμπλουτίζεται συνεχώς με μεγάλο αριθμό συγγραμμάτων και ηλεκτρονική πρόσβαση σε πέραν των 250 επιστημονικών περιοδικών του κλάδου των Φαρμακευτικών Επιστημών.

Μέσω του Προγράμματος οι φοιτητές αποκτούν:

  • Γνώσεις και δεξιότητες για επαγγελματική απασχόληση στον ιδιωτικό και δημόσιο τομέα ως επαγγελματίες φαρμακοποιοί με ιδιαίτερα προσόντα.
  • Ένα ολοκληρωμένο ακαδημαϊκό υπόβαθρο και πρακτική εξάσκηση έτσι ώστε να είναι σε θέση να αντιμετωπίζουν επιτυχώς τις διαρκείς και ραγδαίες εξελίξεις και αυξανόμενες απαιτήσεις της Φαρμακευτικής Επιστήμης και Τεχνολογίας.
  • Εφόδια και τα απαραίτητα προσόντα καθιστώντας τους ικανούς να διεξάγουν υψηλού επιπέδου έρευνα.
  • Εμπειρία στη σύγχρονη βιομηχανία φαρμάκων, στα νοσοκομεία και δημόσιες υπηρεσίες.
  • Εκπαίδευση για να έχουν ενεργό ρόλο στην προστασία και ασφάλεια του φυσικού και κοινωνικού περιβάλλοντος από τη χρήση βιοδραστικών προϊόντων.
  • Ικανή πρακτική εξάσκηση για να ενισχύσουν γνώσεις στη θεωρία, που αφορούν το ρόλο τους ως σύμβουλοι σε σύγχρονα κοινωνικά προβλήματα, όπως εθισμός και χρήση ναρκωτικών, δηλητηρίαση, κλπ.
  • Ικανότητες αξιολόγησης και αποτίμησης στη βιομηχανία φαρμάκων και στη φαρμακευτική αγορά.
  • Ικανότητα να σκέπτονται μεθοδικά και συνοπτικά, ώστε να προβλέπουν τάσεις στη φαρμακοθεραπευτική, στην καινοτομία, παραγωγή, χρήση και κατάχρηση φαρμάκων.
  • Τέλος, το Πρόγραμμα εισάγει τους φοιτητές στο σύγχρονο φαρμακευτικό περιβάλλον, σε φαρμακευτικές επιχειρήσεις, νοσοκομεία και κυβερνητικές υπηρεσίες.

Οι απόφοιτοι του Τμήματος Φαρμακευτικής θα μπορούν να εργαστούν στον ιδιωτικό και δημόσιο τομέα. Συγκεκριμένα, θα μπορούν να εργαστούν σε ιδιωτικά ή κρατικά φαρμακεία, νοσοκομεία, κλινικές και κέντρα υγείας. Επίσης, θα μπορούν να απασχοληθούν στη βιομηχανία φαρμάκων και καλλυντικών, όπως επίσης και σε υπουργεία και άλλους φορείς υγείας της δημόσιας υπηρεσίας.

Κατηγορία Μαθημάτων ECTS
Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα 270
Πρακτική Εξάσκηση 30
ΣΥΝΟΛΟ 300

Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 270 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. Κωδικός Όνομα ECTS Ώρες/εβδ.
1 AENG141 Αγγλικά στις Φαρμακευτικές Επιστήμες Ι 2 4
2 AENG142 Αγγλικά στις Φαρμακευτικές Επιστήμες ΙΙ 2 4
3 PHA101 Γενική και Ανόργανη Χημεία 6 3 + 3*
4 PHA102 Γενική Φυσική 6 3 + 2*
5 PHA103 Μαθηματικά Ι 6 4
6 PHA104 Γενική Βιολογία 6 2 + 2*
7 PHA105 Εισαγωγή στις Φαρμακευτικές Επιστήμες 6 4
8 PHA106 Αναλυτική Χημεία 7 5 + 3*
9 PHA107 Στοιχεία Βοτανικής 7 4 + 3*
10 PHA108 Ανατομία Ανθρώπου 6 3 + 1*
11 PHA109 Επιστήμη Υπολογιστών (εφαρμοσμένη στις Φαρμ. Επιστήμες) 5 4
12 PHA110 Μαθηματικά ΙΙ (Θεωρία Πιθανοτήτων – Στατιστική) 5 4
13 PHA201 Φυσική Χημεία 6 4 + 2*
14 PHA202 Οργανική Χημεία Ι 6 4 + 2*
15 PHA203 Μικροβιολογία 6 2 + 2*
16 PHA204 Χημεία Βιοδραστικών Φυσικών Προϊόντων 6 4 + 2*
17 PHA205 Φυσιολογία 6 4 + 2*
18 PHA206 Οργανική Χημεία ΙΙ 6 3 + 2*
19 PHA207 Βιοχημεία Ι 5 3 + 2*
20 PHA208 Φυσική Φαρμακευτική 6 4 + 2*
21 PHA209 Χημεία Τροφίμων και Επιστήμη Διατροφής 6 4 + 2*
22 PHA210 Μοριακή Βιολογία 5 2 + 2*
23 PHA301 Βιοφαρμακευτική & Φαρμακοκινητική 7 4 + 3*
24 PHA302 Ανόργανη και Βιοανόργανη Φαρμακευτική Χημεία 6 4 + 2*
25 PHA303 Φαρμακευτική Ανάλυση Ι 5 2 + 2*
26 PHA304 Βιοχημεία ΙΙ 5 2 + 2*
27 PHA305 Υγιεινή και Επείγουσα Θεραπευτική 5 3 + 2*
28 PHA306 Μοριακή Φαρμακολογία 6 2 + 2*
29 PHA307 Φαρμακευτική Χημεία Ι 6 2 + 3*
30 PHA308 Φαρμακευτική Τεχνολογία Ι 6 2 + 2*
31 PHA309 Φαρμακολογία Ι 6 2 + 3*
32 PHA310 Φαρμακευτική Ανοσολογία & Ανοσοχημεία 6 2 + 2*
33 PHA401 Φαρμακευτική Χημεία ΙΙ 6 4 + 2*
34 PHA402 Φαρμακευτική Τεχνολογία ΙΙ 6 3 + 2*
35 PHA403 Φαρμακευτική Ανάλυση ΙΙ και Έλεγχος Φαρμάκων 6 3 + 3*
36 PHA404 Φαρμακογνωσία 6 3 + 3*
37 PHA405 Φαρμακολογία ΙΙ 6 3 + 2*
38 PHA406 Κλινική Φαρμακευτική & Αλληλεπιδράσεις Φαρμάκων 6 3 + 2*
39 PHA407 Εισαγωγή στη Φαρμακευτική Βιοτεχνολογία 6 3 + 2*
40 PHA408 Τοξικολογία 7 5 + 2*
41 PHA409 Χημεία και Τεχνολογία Βιομηχανικής Φαρμακευτικής 5 3 + 2*
42 PHA410 Σχεδιασμός, Ανακάλυψη & Ανάπτυξη Φαρμάκων 6 3 + 3*
43 PHA501 Χημεία & Τεχνολογία Καλλυντικών 6 2 + 3*
44 PHA502 Φαρμακευτική Νομοθεσία & Ηθική 4 3
45 PHA503 Προετοιμασία για Διπλωματική Εργασία 5 0
46 PHA505 Αρχές Διαχείρισης και Οικονομικών Φαρμακευτικών Επιχειρήσεων 5 3
47 PHA506 Διπλωματική Εργασία 10 0

 

Πρακτική Εξάσκηση

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει τα ακόλουθα μαθήματα (30 ECTS):

No. Κωδικός Όνομα ECTS Ώρες / εβδ.
1 PHA504 Πρακτική Εξάσκηση Ι 15
2 PHA507 Πρακτική Εξάσκηση ΙΙ 15

 

* Εργαστηριακές ώρες

AENG141: Αγγλικά στις Φαρμακευτικές Επιστήμες Ι

Course Contents

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

AENG142: Αγγλικά στις Φαρμακευτικές Επιστήμες ΙΙ

Course Contents

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

PHA101: Γενική και Ανόργανη Χημεία

Course Contents

·  Kinetic theory and diffusion: diagrams of the states of matter and changes of states, experiments on diffusion and speed of diffusion.
·  Atomic structure: sub-atomic particles, Rutherford’s model of atom, Bohr’s electron shells, quantum theory of atoms, isotopes and radioactive isotopes, electronic configuration of atoms.
·  Bonding: ionic, covalent and metallic bonding, intermolecular forces, electronegativity.
·  Structures: giant structures, alloys, carbon allotropes.
·  Formulae and equations: common polyatomic groups, charges, balancing equations.
·  Rates of reactions: collision theory, activation energy, catalysts.
·  Oxygen and oxides: metal and non-metal oxides, acid rain, global warming/greenhouse effect.
·  Reactions of metals: oxidation, reduction.
·  Acids and Bases: pH, indicators, reactions of acids, Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry theories.
·  Salts: soluble and insoluble salts, crystallisation, titration.
·  Separating and analysing: simple and fractional distillation, paper chromatography, gases collection and identification, testing for ions/carbonates/sulfates/halides.
·  The Periodic table: groups 1, 7, 8 and transition metals.
·  Electrolysis: electrolysis of molten compounds and compounds in solution, rules for ion discharge.
·  Energy changes: enthalpy of reactions, energy diagrams.
·  Equilibrium: reversible reactions, dynamic equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s principle.
·  Manufacturing chemicals: manufacture of NH3 (g) and H2SO4 (l), the chlor-alkali industry for the production of NaOH (aq), H2 (g) and Cl2 (g).
·  Extraction of metals: minerals, ores, metal extraction methods, Al and Fe production.
·  Calculations involved in Pharmaceutical industry: RAM, RFM, RMM, mole, Avogadro’s constant, empirical and molecular formula, isotopic composition, elemental analysis, % yield, Avogadro’s law, Coulomb equation and Faraday constant for electrolysis calculations, specific heat capacity, molarity, titration calculations and atom economy.
·  Mass spectrometer: Interpreting data.
·  Laboratory Work: Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Laboratory. Exercises and Experiments include: Calculations involved in pharmaceutical industry, Use of molecular models for the construction of molecules, Kinetics/Rates of chemical reactions, Preparations of metal and non-metal oxides and investigation of the properties, Metal reactivity, Acid/Base titrations, Preparations of soluble and insoluble salts, Crystallisation, Separating and Analysing: simple and fractional distillations, chromatography, collecting and identifying gases, tests for positive and negative ions, Exercises on Thermodynamics/Energy changes/Specific Heat Capacity and Equilibrium reactions, Mass Spectroscopy data examples.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the basic principles of general and inorganic chemistry sufficient to understand their involvement in Pharmacy.
  2. Apply chemistry knowledge and understanding to the solution of qualitative and quantitative problems of an unfamiliar nature.
  3. Employ skills in the safe handling of chemical materials, taking into account their physical and chemical properties, including any specific hazards associated with their use.
  4. Draw conclusions from experimental results and relate them with the theory.
  5. Use modern computer and communication techniques applied to chemistry.

PHA102: Γενική Φυσική

Course Contents

·  Mechanics: Newton’s laws, forces on solids, motion in viscous fluid, Hooke’s law, forces elastic response (e.g. biomaterials and viscoelasticity), circular motion dynamics, centrifugation in pharmaceutical sciences.
·  Waves: vibrations, wave motion, wave phenomena, static waves, resonances.
·  Electricity: Nature of electricity, Coulomb’s law, electric field, potential and potential energy, electric dipoles and charge distributions, capacitors and dielectrics (cell membranes), molecular electrical interactions, separation techniques (e.g. electrolysis) in pharmaceutical sciences.
·  Magnetism: Magnetic behaviour of matter, magnetic fields and forces, charged particles motion in magnetic field, electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic waves.
·  Heat: Thermal properties of matter, thermal equilibrium, thermal expansion, heat transfer mechanisms, internal energy and ideal gas, laws of thermodynamics, thermidometry.
·  Optics: Optical phenomena (refraction, reflection, diffraction, interference of light), rays on spherical mirrors, optical instruments in pharmaceutical sciences, polarization, optical rotations.
·  Atomic physics: Atomic energy levels, phenomena of excitation, de-excitation and ionization, LASER, X-ray, emission and absorption spectra, spectroscopy for biomolecules.
·  Nuclear Physics: Types of radiation, half-life, radioactivity, nuclear fusion, gamma-ray spectroscopic, radiopharmaceuticals, biological effects of ionizing radiation, doses, safety rules.
·  Laboratory Work: Small group experiments on: Electrostatic charge, Exploratory study of resistance, conversion of energy – thermidometry, Refraction – refraction index, Polarisation of light – optical rotations.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the Newton’s laws and the forces on solids, describe the motion in a viscous fluid, discuss Hooke’s law and forces elastic response (e.g. biomaterials and viscoelasticity), describe the circular motion dynamics and demonstrate knowledge of centrifugation in pharmaceutical sciences.
  2. Describe vibrations and the wave motion, the wave phenomena (reflection, refraction, and diffraction, interference), standing waves and resonances.
  3. Explain the nature of electricity and the Coulomb’s law, define the concept of electric field, potential and potential energy, describe electric dipoles and charge distributions, examine capacitors and dielectrics and relate them to cell membranes, demonstrate knowledge of molecular electrical interactions and separation techniques (e.g. electrolysis) used in pharmaceutical sciences.
  4. Describe the magnetic behaviour of matter, magnetic fields and forces, explain the production of magnetic fields, the motion of charged particles in a magnetic field, and the electromagnetic induction, demonstrate knowledge of electromagnetic waves.
  5. Explain the thermal properties of matter, thermal equilibrium, thermal expansion, and heat transfer mechanisms, define internal energy and the ideal gas, examine and apply the laws of thermodynamics in thermidometry measurements.
  6. Describe the optical phenomena of refraction, reflection, diffraction and interference of light, examine rays on spherical mirrors, recognize the principles of two optical instruments used in pharmaceutical sciences, explain polarization and apply it in optical rotation measurements.
  7. Explain the atomic energy levels, the phenomena of excitation, de-excitation and ionization, demonstrate knowledge of the physical principles, characteristics and applications of LASER and X-ray, identify emission and absorption spectra and discuss the use of spectroscopy to study biomolecules.
  8. Describe the types of radiation emitted from the radioactive nucleus, explain half-life, radioactivity, and nuclear fusion, demonstrate knowledge of gamma-ray spectroscopy, discuss radiopharmaceuticals, review biological effects of ionizing radiation, allowed doses, and safety rules.

PHA103: Μαθηματικά Ι

Course Contents

Elements of Set theory: set operations, Cartesian product, relations, configurations.
Elements of Linear Algebra: Matrices and their properties, determinants and finding inverse matrix, applying Cramer’s rule to solve using matrices systems of linear equations.
Elements of Analytical Geometry and Vector Calculus: vector concept, vector products and identities, straight lines, conic sections, plane.
Elements of Differential and Integral Calculus: limits of sequences and functions, the concept of series, continuity, derivatives and differentials (product, quotient, chain rule), applications of the derivative (as a rate of change, slope, local extrema (minima and maxima), points of inflection, definite and indefinite integrals, (integration by substitution, integration by parts, integration using partial fractions), applications of integration (area, volume, chemistry problems).
Elements of Ordinary Differential Equations: first order linear homogeneous and non-homogeneous differential equations, method of separation of variables, second order differential equations with constant coefficients.
Numerical approximations: Euler’s Method, Series (Taylor), Fourier Series.
Applications of the above material to the field of Pharmacy and Chemistry.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the concept of a set, including familiarisation with the respective notation, identify the properties of sets and perform operations such as union, intersection and subsets of sets.
  2. Define the notion of a matrix and its properties, perform matrix operations, generate determinants, find the inverse of a matrix by employing its determinant and the transpose of the matrix of cofactors and utilise Cramer’s rule for solving square linear systems.
  3. Defend the notion of vectors, perform operations with vectors including dot and vector products, exploit their properties, explain the formulation of an equation of a straight line as well as elucidate conic sections such as circles, parabolae, ellipse and hyperbolae.
  4. Explain definite and indefinite integrals, use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, apply the taught integrating methods to integrals and tackle applications of integration.
  5. Explicate the meaning of ordinary differential equations, compute first order homogeneous and non-homogeneous linear equations, adopt the method of separation of variables to solve first order differential equations, execute second order differential equations using the method of undetermined coefficients.
  6. Define the concept of limits and continuity, apply these to determine the definition of derivative, employ general rules for differentiation to polynomial, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic type functions, study different applications of the derivative.
  7. Use Euler’s method as a numerical approximation for the solution of ordinary differential equations with the inclusion of an initial value, describe and employ series and Fourier series, apply mathematical knowledge to the area of pharmacy and chemistry.

PHA104: Γενική Βιολογία

Course Contents

·  Introduction to Biology
: The contribution of biology to the advancement of medicine and pharmacy. Basic concepts in biochemistry and biology: life, living matter, atoms, molecules, chemical bonds, cells biological molecules, organisms.
·  Introduction to the cell
: The biology of the cell, different cell types. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes-similarities and differences. Different organisms: bacteria, plants, fungi and animals – similarities and differences. The use of microscopy in biology.
·  Cellular organelles and chemical composition of cells: The structure of biological molecules. Structure, function and role of eukaryotic cells. Energy production in animal cells. Plant cells and photosynthesis.
·  Evolution: Theories on the beginning of life on planet earth and the evolution of living organisms.
·  Genetics and Heredity: Genetic material. DNA and RNA structure. Organization into chromosomes. Genes and gene expression. Genetic mutations and disease. Genetic testing and diagnosis. DNA technology and medicine. Gene therapy. The mechanisms of cloning.
·  Cell cycle and cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis. Cell cycle and cell death.
 
·  Laboratory Work: Individual or small group experiments performed using common biological science equipment. Students become acquainted to lab health and safety, the use of microscope to study cells, different types of microscopy, preparation of wet mounts for microscopy, DNA structure, mitosis and meiosis.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the living matter and its properties.
  2. Recognise the basic functions carried out in cells and organisms in general.
  3. State the different types of organisms and the distinctions from each other (unicellular – multicellular, prokaryotic-eukaryotic, plants – fungi – animals).
  4. Employ biological instrumentation such as the microscope.

PHA105: Εισαγωγή στις Φαρμακευτικές Επιστήμες

Course Contents

·  Acquaintance with Pharmaceutical Sciences.
·  Introduction to the pharmaceutical subjects and objectives.
·  Historical evolution of Pharmacy.
·  Drugs and Therapeutics.
·  Potentialities, achievements and prospects of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
·  Food-nutrition/health-disease/drugs-pharmacotherapy, similarities and differences.
·  Objectives and content of each Pharmaceutical Science.
·  Society and pharmaceutical scientists from community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, state offices, pharmaceutical industry, consultancy, in problems of narcotics and non-therapeutic use of drugs, in facing poisoning.
·  The position of Pharmaceutical Sciences in the spectrum of Health Sciences.
·  Tutorial: Discussion on subjects and events that have greatly influenced Pharmacy; Alchemy – Evolution of Botany and Medicine; The discovery of pharmaceutical plants of the New World; Ethno pharmacy – Serendipity.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the science they chose to study.
  2. State the history and evolution of drugs and Pharmacy.
  3. Distinguish the evolution of methods of drug discovery.
  4. Distinguish the relations of food and drugs in health and disease.
  5. Analyse the prospects of the professional and scientific placement of pharmacists in organised societies.

PHA106: Αναλυτική Χημεία

Course Contents

·  Acid-base and oxidation-reduction reactions.
·  Chemical equilibrium, weak acid-base dissociation, hydrolysis of salts.
·  Heterogeneous (solubility products) and redox systems.
·  Methods and Techniques in qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis.
·  Reactions, separation, identification of cations and anions. Analysis of cations and anions in mixtures. Analysis of unknown samples, including alloys and/or minerals. Identification of halogens, sulfur and nitrogen atoms covalently bonded in organic compounds. Laboratory procedures and safety in laboratory practice.
·  Chemometrics and performance characteristics. Sampling techniques. Physicochemical processes, gravimetric analysis. Acid-base, complexometric, precipitation, redox titrations. Electrochemical analysis. Non aqueous titrations. Laboratory practice.
·  Introduction to instrumental analysis. Spectroscopic analytical techniques (UV-vis, 1H-NMR, atomic absorption spectrometry). Introduction to separation techniques using chromatography (flash-column, thin layer chromatography, HPLC, GLC). Introduction to electrophoresis. Errors in chemical analyses, statistical processing of analysis data.
Laboratory work: Preparation of solutions of defined concentrations, Identification of cations, Identification of anions, Separation and identification of a mixture of ions, Separation and identification of a mineral, Separation and identification of an alloy, Gravimetric analysis (e.g. of sulphates), Titrimetric analysis (e.g. acids, bases, chloride), Iodometry (e.g., Fe3+, As5+), Complexometry (e.g. Pb2+), Spectrophotometric determinations (e.g. CuSO4, methylene blue).

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain qualitative determinations of common ions and analyse unknown samples.
  2. Analyse various substances, e.g. ions, of particular interest in Pharmacy and Toxicology, such as heavy metals.
  3. Analyse the purity of samples, particularly solvents and reagents used in industry and laboratories.
  4. Employ gravimetric, titrimetric and complexometric analyses.
  5. Employ quantitative analyses based on spectrophotometric techniques.
  6. Employ chromatographic as adjunct methods in quantitative analysis.
  7. Apply the correct ways of sampling and perform analysis of simple pharmaceuticals.
  8. Apply safe laboratory practice.

PHA107: Στοιχεία Βοτανικής

Course Contents

·  Introduction to Pharmacognosy (the plant-oriented pharmaceutical science).
·  Plant characteristics. Typical plant cell. Plant tissues, organs. Plant reproduction. Plant morphology. Anatomy and function of plant cell and organism. Important plant constituents and products. Phylogenetics and Systematics in Botany. Official botanical plant names. Basis and basic units in plant classification. Taxonomical hierarchy. Essential characteristics of plant groups and, in particular, plant families of importance to man as food, drugs, etc. Plant identification. Chemotaxonomy. Indigenous plants of Cyprus. Cyprus flora and biodiversity – specificities, characteristics and protection.
·  Plants, man and environment. Significance of plants for mankind. Plants as sources of food, row materials, energy, drugs, perfumes and cosmetics. Contribution of plants to economy, life, mood and happiness of humanity. Cultivation and taming of plants. Mutation of economic plants: advantages and risks. Plant cultivation. Elements of phycology and marine plants.
·  Tutorial on external plant morphology and on Cyprus flora.
Laboratory work: Microscopic examination of plant cell, Microscopic construction of plant organs (e.g. leaf, stem, fruit, grain), Microscopic examination of stored plant substances and constituents (e.g. starch, oils, tannins, pigments), Extraction and separation of chlorophylls and xanthophylls, Plant organs important for plant classification and organisation, Identification of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, Identification of fungi, algae and marine plants, Field work.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify plant construction and function.
  2. Recognise the role and function of each plant organ.
  3. State the contribution of the plant world to mankind from various viewpoints.
  4. Distinguish the morphology and physiology of plants that can be used in pure pharmaceutical subjects related to Botany, like Pharmacognosy.
  5. Analyse plants and funguses.
  6. Identify plants.
  7. State phytogeography, plant distribution in Cyprus and worldwide.

PHA108: Ανατομία Ανθρώπου

Course Contents

·  Basic knowledge on topology, morphology and anatomy of organs, systems and tissues of the human body.
·  Cell types.
·  Skeleton and bones, articulation, skeletal muscles, muscular system. Viscera, digestive, and urogenitary systems.
·  Cardiovascular, endocrine and immune systems. Nervous system.
·  Parts and areas of the body, guiding spots.
·  Elements of Histology.
·  Laboratory work: Demonstration and description of the human skeleton and the viscera the human body, in an anatomy theatre on a cadaver or on a human artificial model.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain in detail the physical substance of the human body function, e.g. organs, tissues, cells.
  2. Demonstrate a satisfactory knowledge of body morphology and construction, in relation to physiological or pathological conditions of organs and tissues.
  3. Explain why some of the drug actions are located in, or excluded from certain areas of the body.
  4. Describe, in addition to physiology, a number of purely pharmaceutical subjects, like drug action, pharmacology, drug interactions, pharmacokinetics, even pharmacochemistry.

PHA109: Επιστήμη Υπολογιστών (εφαρμοσμένη στις Φαρμ. Επιστήμες)

Course Contents

Introduction to Computer Science, historical development, structure and operational function of computers, hardware and software. Operational systems. Statistical packets for data analysis, plotting. Programs on molecular drawing and modelling, molecular graphics. Use of computers for calculation of physicochemical properties of bioactive compounds, e.g. charge distribution, lipophilicity, molecular volume, for the prediction of certain biological properties, e.g. blood/brain barrier penetration, and for receptor fitting, which are important in Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Process and report experimental data and practice the prediction of properties of small molecules.
  2. Acquire insight into the principles and possibilities on molecular modelling for the study of therapeutically relevant proteins and their interaction with drugs.
  3. Demonstrate familiarity with current internet based databases used in molecular biology for e.g., the study and identification of functional protein domains.

PHA110: Μαθηματικά ΙΙ (Θεωρία Πιθανοτήτων – Στατιστική)

Course Contents

·  Descriptive statistics: Graphical methods, symmetry, skewness, kurtosis measures of central tendency and deviation.
·  Elements of the probability theory: Bayes theorem, discrete and continuous distributions (Poisson, Binomial, Normal, Exponential, Uniform), mean and variance.
·  Estimation methods.
·  Confidence intervals and hypothesis testing.
·  Regression and correlation.
·  Contingency tables.
·  Applications in Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacy, Therapeutics.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Summarize, calculate and interpret the measures of location (mean, mode, and median), measures of dispersion (variance, standard deviation, range), skweness and kurtosis. Apply these in the practice of health sciences.
  2. Calculate, and interpret probabilities in pharmaceutical sciences.
  3. Use data to estimate parameters and calculate confidence intervals for the population mean the percentage and differences of means and percentages.
  4. Apply hypothesis testing in real data situations.
  5. Simulate models using regression.
  6. Evaluate experiments and factors using contingency tables and hypothesis testing.

PHA201: Φυσική Χημεία

Course Contents

·  Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic properties of gases and state equation. Collision and kinetic theory of gases. Structure and thermodynamic properties of liquids. Thermodynamic laws. Internal energy, entropy, enthalpy (determination in chemical reactions). Thermochemistry, phase equilibrium.
·  Properties of solutions: acids, bases and buffers. Ionisation, pH and pKa. Solutions of non electrolytic systems. Interfaces and colloidal systems. Electrolytic solutions and equilibrium. Osmosis, diffusion, solubility.
·  Oxidation and reduction: Oxidation, reduction, oxidative and reductive species. Oxidation number. Oxidative and reductive reactions.
·  Kinetics of homogenous reactions: reaction rates, factors influencing reaction rates, reaction mechanisms, Arrhenius equation, activation energy. Transition state theory.
·  Crystal structure: The basic types of crystal structure. Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline materials. Crystallographic directions and planes. X-ray Diffraction.
·  Photochemistry and spectroscopy: Interactions of radiation with matter. Photochemical reactions. Spectroscopy (UV-vis, IR, 1H NMR)..
Laboratory Work: Individual or small group laboratories. Experiments will include the determination of entropy, the effect of temperature on reaction rates, determination of the partition coefficient, determination of pKa, spectroscopy and the detection of refractive index.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Demonstrate a good knowledge of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.
  2. Recognise the basic laws of thermodynamics, as well as the concept of thermodynamic potentials and their role in chemical reactions.
  3. Explain how different experimental conditions can influence the speed of a chemical reaction.
  4. Apply mathematical models that can describe the characteristics of a chemical reaction and yield information about the reaction’s mechanism and transition states.
  5. Apply the methods for the determination of physicochemical parameters having an important role in drug action or medicinal preparations, like lipophilicity, polarity, molar refractivity, viscosity, diffusion and solubility.
  6. Determine the interaction of molecules and light (electromagnetic rays), and explain the basic principles behind spectroscopy and polarimetry and learn how to apply them.
  7. Describe the method of polarography and explain its application to pharmaceutical analysis.
  8. Identify interfacial phenomena. Understand adsorption and related phenomena.

PHA202: Οργανική Χημεία Ι

Course Contents

·  Nomenclature of organic compounds.
·  Structure and bonding in organic compounds.
·  Synthesis, properties, reactivity of alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, epoxides, amines, carbonyl compounds, organometallic compounds, sulphur and phosphorus containing compounds.
·  Stereochemistry. Stereochemistry in organic reactions.
·  Nucleophilic substitution, addition and elimination reactions and the involved mechanisms.
·  Mechanisms of selected organic reactions, some name reactions.
·  Separation of organic compounds using chemical and chromatographic techniques.
·  Sugars and lipids.
Laboratory work: Distillation and crystallisation, Esterification, hydrolysis, saponification, Synthesis of ethers, Quaternisation of a tertiary amine, Carbonyl reactions and identification, Grignard reactions.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Describe the principles of organic chemistry and explain their involvement in the synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs.
  2. Apply the methods and techniques for the preparation of the main groups of aliphatic compounds.
  3. Draw mechanisms of organic reactions.
  4. Describe the particular properties of compounds belonging to the groups, e.g. sugars, lipids, sulphur- and phosphorus- containing compounds.
  5. Draw consecutive reactions for targeted synthesis of organic compounds.

PHA203: Μικροβιολογία

Course Contents

·  Introduction to Microbiology and Parasitology.
·  Specification and peculiarities in the structure of the microbial body.
·  Structure of viruses, bacteria, fungi.
·  Nutrition, metabolism development, reproduction of microbes.
·  Microbial cultures.
·  Microbial infections, toxins and development of immunity.
·  Antibodies.
·  Antimicrobial agents.
·  Disinfectants and sterilisation.
·   Determination of antibiotic spectrum.
·  Viral infections, e.g. herpes, hepatitis, AIDS.
·  Elements of protozoal and worm parasitology.
·  Microbes in the service of man. Elements in epidemiology.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Describe the structure, metabolism, function and reproduction of microbes.
  2. Recognise the differences between fungi, viruses and parasites.
  3. Describe how to culture and preserve microbes.
  4. Explain basic principles of immunology.
  5. Obtain an introductory knowledge on immunology.
  6. Evaluate the sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics and other antibacterial reagents.
  7. Describe how microbes can be in the service of man.

PHA204: Χημεία Βιοδραστικών Φυσικών Προϊόντων

Course Contents

·  Definition, description, nature, targets of bioactivity. Role of natural bioactive compounds. Relationship between biologic action, chemical structure and physicochemical properties. Poisons, toxins and drugs, the chemical warfare in nature. Is food a bioactive substance? Similarities and differences between the two. The presence of bioactive compounds in food, water, atmosphere and ground. The role of the modern human activities, pollution. Xenobiotics. Effects of bioactive substances on humans. Similarities and differences between poisons and drugs. The wisdom of nature concerning the relationship between bioactive substances and life.
·  Products of plant origin, their biosynthesis, applications, determination and use in pharmacy, studied in groups according to their chemical character, e.g. lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, terpenes, steroids, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, antibiotics, vitamins, inorganic constituents, water, ash, etc. Structure, origin (botanical name and family of the producing plant), properties (physical, chemical, biological). Purity, quality, quantity control. Adulterations and their detection. Use of natural products in pharmacy and drug therapy, in relation to their actions. Applications in Pharmaceutical Technology and Galenic Pharmacy. Histopharmacochemistry of parts of the plant. Role and contribution of natural products and pharmacognosy to pharmaceutical sciences. Role and critique on phytotherapy, aromatherapy and related alternative therapies, in relation to modern pharmacotherapy.
Laboratory work: Isolation of a bioactive compound from a plant product and bioactivity test, Activity of a synthetic bioactive product in vitro, Role of a synthetic bioactive product in the body, Isolation of purine alkaloids from tea leaves, Isolation of quinine and other alkaloids from the plant bark, Microscopic and physicochemical properties of starch, Microscopic and chemical examination of fibres, Chemical study of cholesterol or carotenes or tannins.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify bioactivity and bioactive compounds.
  2. Recognise the purpose of bioactive compounds in nature.
  3. Recognise the important natural products, their origin, properties and biological activity.
  4. State the common adulteration and their detection.
  5. State the use of natural products in Pharmaceutical Sciences.
  6. Distinguish the contribution of natural products in drug design and development of new drugs.
  7. Distinguish the important role of synthetic compounds as environmental pollutants, but also as a source of therapeutic agents.
  8. Integrate the relationships of food and bioactive compounds.

PHA205: Φυσιολογία

Course Contents

·  Organisation, structure, functions of mammalian cells.
·  Function of cell structure and organelles in various tissues.
·  Autonomic Nervous System.
·  Cardiovascular system, Physiology of myocardium, cardiac rhythm.
·  Blood and lymph.
·  Kidney and body fluids. Formation of urine, diuresis, acid-base control.
·  Respiration, exchange of gases. Lung ventilation. Respiratory control.
·  Gastrointestinal system. Control of gastrointestinal mobility and secretions. Digestion.
·  Metabolism and temperature control.
·  Endocrine and Reproduction systems. Introduction to Endocrinology. Hormonal effects on human reproduction.
·  Homeostasis, homeostatic responses, Biologic stress.
·  Coordination of the body functions.
·  Physiology of the central nervous system. Function of neurons, the supportive role of neuroglia and astrocytes, synapses, neurotransmitter vesicles, transduction of sensory stimuli and senses. Function of the different brain areas and inner connections. The higher functions of brain, cortex-hippocampus-medulla.
·  Movement and muscular tone.
·  Interaction of nervous, immune and endocrine systems, their collaboration in homeostasis.
·  Elements of the pathophysiology of some common and/or important neurodegenerative diseases and biologic stress.

·  Labaratory work: Sedation – excitation of the central nervous system; Neuromuscular junction; Intestinal motility; Insulin and diabetes mellitus; Blood and blood cells; Biologic stress, structural, functional, biochemical alterations.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the physiologic function of the organism as a whole.
  2. Describe in detail the particular functional role of each system.
  3. Explain the physiological biochemistry involved in each function of the body tissues.
  4. Realise, detect, measure and explain the changes in the homeostatic responses of the organism.
  5. Describe the biologic phenomenon of stress.
  6. Describe the higher functions of the brain.

PHA206: Οργανική Χημεία ΙΙ

Course Contents

·  Spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, IR, NMR), mass spectrometry and structure elucidation of organic compounds.
·  Monocyclic, polycyclic aromatic compounds and properties.
·  Electrophilic, nucleophilic aromatic substitution.
·  Conjugates, dienes and isoprenoids.
·  Aminoacids, peptides, proteins.
·  Introduction to Heterocyclic Chemistry. Nucleotides, nucleic acids.
·  Polymerisation and polymers, biodegradable polymers.
·  Steroids, (bio)synthesis, properties, role of steroids.
·  Establishing organic compound structures by modern physicochemical techniques (e.g. chemical, spectroscopic).
·  Laboratory work: Friedel-Crafts reaction, Phenols, aromatic amines and their reactions, Aromatic nitro-compounds, syntheses and properties, Reactions and properties of pyridine, Spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, IR.), NMR and mass spectrometry.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Develop knowledge on organic compound preparation and production, properties, reactions and reaction mechanisms.
  2. Explain the chemistry of heterocyclic and heteroaromatic compounds.
  3. Explain the synthesis and properties of amino-acids and proteins.
  4. Describe the chemistry and properties of nucleic acids.
  5. Acquire, in fair detail, the synthesis, nature, properties and uses of polymers, especially the biodegradable polymers.

PHA207: Βιοχημεία Ι

Course Contents

·  Introduction to biochemistry and background
: The contribution of biochemistry to the advancement of medicine and pharmacy. Basic concepts in biochemistry and biology: life, living matter, atoms, molecules, chemical bonds, hydrogen bonds, water, acids, bases, pH, solutions and buffers, solution concentrations, thermodynamics, cell organelles.
·  Proteins
: Structure and biological role of amino acids. Peptides and proteins. Primary and 3-dimentional structure of proteins. Protein folding. Proteins function. Study of structure and function of hemoglobin.
·  Sugars and polysaccharides: Monosaccharides, polysaccharides. Structure and function of glucose. Structure and function of glycoproteins.
·  Lipids and membranes: Lipid classification. Fatty acids, phospholipids, triglycerides. Lipid aggregates and biological membranes. Structure of cell membrane. Lipoproteins. Cholesterol structure and role. Steroids.
·  Metabolism: Introduction to metabolism. Glycolysis. Glycogen metabolism. Hormones. Membrane transport. Citric Acid Cycle. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Plant cells, chlorophyll and photosynthesis (dark and light reactions). Metabolism of lipids. Ketone bodies. Amino acid metabolism and urea cycle. Metabolism of nucleotides.

Laboratory Work: Individual or small group experiments performed using common biological science equipment. Students become acquainted to techniques involving protein isolation, chromatographic separation, electrophoresis, lipid, sugar isolation and study of their properties.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the importance and contribution of biochemistry in the advancement of medicine and pharmacy.
  2. Identify the biomolecules and explain their chemical composition, biological function and role.
  3. State the properties of biomolecules and distinguish the ways these properties manage to set the body functions.
  4. Analyse the ways our body metabolizes molecules and how these functions are influenced by hormones, vitamins and inorganic compounds.
  5. Explain the biochemical basis of disease.

PHA208: Φυσική Φαρμακευτική

Course Contents

·  Physics in the service of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Physical and physicochemical phenomena, physical and physicochemical laws and use in pharmacy.
·  Colloidal dispersion systems, types and properties of colloidal systems. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology.
·  Dissolving, solubilizing drug molecules, osmosis and osmotic pressure, diffusion and osmotic properties of the system, surface tension, surfactants, detergents in Pharmaceutical Sciences.
·  Surface and interphase phenomena.
·  Liposomes, use of cyclodextrins.
·  Absorption, adsorption, desorption. Rheology, rheological properties of liquids.
·  Particle size, particle size distribution and measurement. Pharmaceutical dispersion systems.
·  Freeze-drying techniques, applications and use in pharmaceutical sciences.
·  Lipid bilayer liposomes: Preparation, characterisation, stability and methods of drug trapping.
·  Tutorial: Discussion and problem solving.
Laboratory work: Penetration of a membrane by a drug molecule, Determination of optical rotation of sugars, Determination of the critical micelle concentration, Determination of viscosity of a medium, Determination of the mean diameter of particles, Cyclodextrin encapsulation, Liposome preparation.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the theory and application of physical and physicochemical techniques in Pharmaceutical Sciences.
  2. Develop the knowledge of the stability and control of drug preparations.
  3. Apply modern techniques for the preparation of liposomes and cyclodextrin – drug complexation.
  4. Apply the freeze drying method in pharmaceutical as well as in food industry.
  5. Apply physical lows in Pharmacy for pharmaceutical preparations or for solving pharmaceutical problems.

PHA209: Χημεία Τροφίμων και Επιστήμη Διατροφής

Course Contents

·  A detailed chemical introduction on food and other nutrients to the pharmaceutical scientists.
·  Origin and sources of food. Natural constituents of food. Structural characteristics of food, physicochemical, functional properties. Influence of external factors, processing and other parameters.
·  Food of animal origin: meat, fish, milk and dairy products.
·  Food of plant origin, cereal and legumes, oils and oil products, fruit and seeds. Role of water and sodium chloride in food and food preparation.
·  Flavouring materials, vitamins and inorganic food constituents, spices. Drinking water.
·  Food sampling and analysis. Natural undesired food constituents. Biochemical changes of the main food constituents during maturation and cooking. Biochemical changes in food spoilage. Elements of food microbiology. Juices and alcoholic beverages: Preparation, constituents, properties, nutritional value and analysis of food. Food production, food industry, processing, preservation. Food additives, colour, flavour, taste and texture improvement, antioxidants and other preservatives.
·  Introduction to nutrition, digestion, assimilation of food constituents (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, indigestible fibres, metals). Dietary food, fortified food, special diets. Functional food, Probiotic food, Nutraceuticals. Biotechnology in nutrition, genetically modified food producing organisms. Problems of food processing, food preservation, new nutritional habits.
·  Diseases of the modern societies and role of food and nutrition. Diseases caused by food deficiency and excess. Food as a harmful material or as a drug. Food commerce, worldwide nutritional differences and nutritional education. Food and nutrition of the future
·  Relation of food science to the pharmaceutical sciences.
Laboratory work: Determination of water – humidity in food, Determination of acidity and unsaturation in oils, Determination of proteins in food (meat, wheat), Determination of sugars and reducing carbohydrates, Detection of food additives and of antioxidants in specially fortified food material, Caloric determination of common food constituents, Detection and determination of indigestible fibres, Determination of lipids in cheese and milk, of sodium chloride in cheese.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the exact constitution of all common food material, the properties and nutritional value of every common food.
  2. Explain the food processes in food industry, storage, preservation, as well as in the organism.
  3. Explain food processing at home and in industry as well as the changes to food constituents during processing.
  4. State how food is processed in the body.
  5. Distinguish the various types of special food and diets.
  6. Distinguish the chemical, biological and toxicological properties of the common food additives.
  7. Analyse the consequences of food processing, preservation, new nutritional habits and be introduced to the biotechnology of nutritional products.
  8. Analyse and determine many of the food constituents; know how food can modify the biological action of a number of drugs.

PHA210: Μοριακή Βιολογία

Course Contents

·  Procaryotic cells, viruses, plasmids and transposable elements. Eucaryotic cell structure, organelles, cytoskeleton and their functions.
·  Hormones and other molecules for the transduction of biological messages, functions of membrane and intracellular receptors.
·  Organisation, storage and expression of genetic information. Genes, operons and regulons. RNA polymerase and transition factors in RNA processing and transport.
·  Cell division, differentiation and cell death.
·  Cancers, oncogenes and, antioncogenes.
·  Introduction to genetic engineering. Elements of Molecular Biology in Medicinal Chemistry: molecular targets, e.g. cellular assays in drug discovery; gene knock-out models. Synthesis, e.g stereoselective synthesis helped by recombinant enzymes; analysis, e.g. enantioseparation of chiral drugs, kinetics, metabolism and toxicity, pharmacogenetics.
·  Genetic variation on drug disposition and response.
·   Pharmacogenetics of bioavailability and elimination.
·  Toxicogenetics: interaction of new molecular – biological tools in Toxicology.
·  Molecular biology in the service of Pharmacy and Therapeutics.
Laboratory Work: Individual or small group experiments performed using common biological science equipment. Students become acquainted to basic molecular biology techniques such as DNA electrophoresis, restriction enzyme digestion, western blotting, etc.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the molecular processes involved in a long series of important biological phenomena, such as gene expression, storage and transfer of genetic information.
  2. Recognise well the involved molecular mechanisms in cell death and cancer.
  3. State the role of hormones in many cell regulatory functions.
  4. Distinguish the various basic techniques concerning DNA, RNA, proteins – enzymes involved in important cellular functions, e.g. expression and transcription.
  5. Employ the basic knowledge necessary for the subject of pharmaceutical biotechnology taught in a later semester.

PHA301: Βιοφαρμακευτική & Φαρμακοκινητική

Course Contents

·  A chemical introduction on drug action and xenobiotic behaviour.
·  Brief historical introduction to drug development and applications.
·  Impact of drugs on health and disease.
·  Differences and similarities between food and drugs.
·  General characteristics of drug molecules-Xenobiotics. Chemical bonds, drug properties and drug action.
·  Covalent, coordinated bonds, coulombic forces, hydrogen bond, van der Waals forces, lipid interactions.
·  Principles of selectivity based on differences in morphology, biochemistry and distribution.
·  Ways of drug loss, elements of drug absorption, distribution and excretion. Drug metabolism. Objectives, evolution, site, chemical nature of structural changes. Oxidations, reductions, hydrolyses and other phase I biotransformations. Conjugations with glucuronic acid, glycine, sulphate, glutathione, and other phase II biotransformations.
·  Molecular biology of cytochromes P450. P450 induction and inhibition. Biodetoxification, Biotoxication.
·  Drug metabolism and drug stereochemistry. Molecular aspects of drug-drug and drug-food interactions. Consequences of interactions, applications in therapy, elements of drug design and development.
·  The phases of drug action. The pharmaceutical phase. The pharmacokinetic phase. Sites of loss. Absorption, distribution and excretion of drugs. Mechanisms and factors involved in these phenomena: Sites and mechanisms of absorption, distribution of drugs in the body and the rules covering this phenomenon
·  Enterohepatic circulation, (blood) protein-drug binding, types of binding, rules governing binding, the phenomenon of dislocation, therapeutic applications. Excretion of drugs, urinary, biliary, other (saliva, sweat, milk, tears, sperm).
·  Pharmacokinetic parameters, volume of distribution, biological half-life, maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve, biodisposition. Pharmacokinetic and therapeutic bioavailability. Role of urinary pH, of pKa of drugs and of their molecular weight. The third phase is the pharmacodynamic phase.
·  Tutorial: Discussion and problem solving.
Laboratory work: Determination of a drug in urine, saliva or blood, Effect of urinary pH, acidic, neutral, alkaline, on the excretion of drugs (weak electrolytes), Phase I drug metabolism, Phase II drug metabolism, Determination of urinary excretion rate of a drug administered per os or intra peritoneally, Determination of Cmax, t½ and AUC.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the basic classification and causes of important diseases and the characteristics of pharmacodynamic and chemotherapeutic drugs.
  2. Explain the fate of a drug in the body, its kinetics and, most important, its metabolism, as well as the phenomenon of xenobiotic metabolism from various aspects.
  3. Explain the molecular and chemical basis of drug interactions and the formation of various types of chemical bonds and the effects on the development of drug action.
  4. State the three phases in the development of drug action.
  5. State in details the routes of per os, per annum, sublingual, parenteral (im, iv, sc, ip) administration, administration via the respiratory system, transdermal administration, differences in the duration and potency of action, explanation of differences.
  6. Analyse the phenomenon of drug distribution and that of plasma protein binding, nature of these phenomena as well as the phenomenon of drug dislocation by another drug and effects connected with it. Further, which drugs are extensively bound and consequences in drug interactions.
  7. Analyse how drugs are excreted and routes of excretion, influence of the urine pH, pKa of the drug, lipophilicity of the drug molecules, binding with plasma proteins, effect of the molecular weight of drugs on the route of excretion.
  8. Apply some of the important pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g. volume of distribution, t½, Cmax, AUC, biodisposition.

PHA302: Ανόργανη και Βιοανόργανη Φαρμακευτική Χημεία

Course Contents

·  A detailed pharmacochemical presentation of inorganic and organometallic compounds of pharmaceutical interest.
·  Examination (structure, synthesis-preparation, properties, biological actions, therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications, identification, purity control) of inorganic compounds used in pharmaceutical sciences and of toxicological interest.
·  The periodic system of elements in relation to their biologic action and toxicity. Metal ions in living systems, trace elements, synergistic and antagonistic effects of metal ions. Drug–metal interactions. Metalloenzymes. Fe, Co, Mo, Mn, Zn and Cu in cell.
·  Behaviour of various organic molecules, in relation to metal ions from the aspect of bioactivity for drug and antidote development.
·  Coordinated bonds and synthesis of chelating agents – metal complexes.
·  Molecular aspect of heavy metal toxicity (As, Sb, Bi, Cd, Pb, Hg, Pt, Au, Ag) natural and industrial pollution, e.g. Minamata disease. Biological and synthetic ligands. Role of some metals in oxidative stress.
·  Tutorial: Discussion and problem solving.
·  Laboratory work: Preparation of barium sulphate, Determination of heavy metals in sodium or magnesium sulphate, Preparation and properties of zinc oxide, Preparation of calcium hydrogen phosphate, Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Ba2+ or Sb3+ in a pharmaceutical substance, Complexation of Pb2+ and Cu2+ with EDTA and penicillamine.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Recognise inorganic compounds used in Pharmacy.
  2. State the chemical nature of actions of inorganic compounds in the organism.
  3. Distinguish the ligands and other organic compounds used in heavy metal intoxication or poisoning from other inorganic chemicals.
  4. Describe the mode of action of ligands.
  5. Analyse the importance and reason for life of the trace elements.

PHA303: Φαρμακευτική Ανάλυση Ι

Course Contents

·  Analytical techniques for pharmaceutical products of high quality.
·  Sensitivity, reproducibility and accuracy of methods in drug quality control, using purely chemical methods of analysis, e.g. aqueous and non-aqueous titrimetric, gravimetric, and instrumental methods, e.g. spectroscopic, chromatographic, fluorometric, for qualitative and quantitative control of drugs.
·  Emphasis to quality control, by qualitative and quantitative determinations, of the active substances and reagents-solvents used in pharmacies and pharmaceutical industry.
·  Pharmaceutical product stability and purity for the determination of t1/2 of chemicals and drugs and their expiry date.
·  Laboratory work: Chromatographic (TLC) separation of a mixture, Separation of pharmaceutical compounds from a mixture by extraction or HPLC, Spectrophotometric determination of a drug, e.g. haloperidol, Detection and quantitative determination of Pb(II) in drug, chemical or water samples.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the principles of analytical techniques for application to drug quality control.
  2. Describe the analytical chemistry techniques, as applied to pharmaceutical preparations.
  3. Recognise the classical analytical methods, as well as the use of chromatographic (TLC, HPLC), spectrophotometric and other optical techniques.
  4. State how and when to characterise a pharmaceutical product of high quality.
  5. Perform a stability study to a pharmaceutical preparation.

PHA304: Βιοχημεία ΙΙ

Course Contents

·  Enzymes: Substrate specificity. Coenzymes. Properties of enzymes. Regulation of enzymatic activity. Enzyme inhibition and induction. Allosteric enzymes. Enzyme antagonists. Rates of enzymatic reactions. Enzymatic catalysis. Examples of enzymatic reactions. Vitamins.
·  DNA: Nucleotides and nucleic acid structure. Double helix and base pairing. DNA replication, repair and recombination.
·  RNA: Nucleotides and RNA structure. mRNA, rRNA, tRNA.
·  Transfer of genetic information: Transcription and Translation. ribosomes and the genetic code.
·  Genes: The structure of chromosomes. Heredity. Eukaryotic gene expression. DNA mutations.
·  Genetic disease: The genetic basis of various diseases and genetic syndromes.
·  DNA technology: Cloning and genetic engineering. GMOs.
Laboratory Work: Individual or small group experiments performed using common biological science equipment. Students become acquainted to techniques involving enzymatic reactions, nucleic acid isolation and study.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the biomolecules and explain their chemical composition, biological function and role.
  2. State the properties of biomolecules and distinguish the ways these properties manage to set the body functions.
  3. Analyse the structure, function and control of enzymatic activity.
  4. Analyze the structure, function of genetic material.
  5. Explain the genetic basis of disease.

PHA305: Υγιεινή και Επείγουσα Θεραπευτική

Course Contents

·  Evolution of Hygiene up to the present time.
·  Effect of food and nutrition (constituents, caloric supply, dietary habits) on human health and health problems like cardiovascular, cancer, neurodegeneration.
·  Effect of drinking water, water resources, reservoirs and supply. Water processing.
·  Clothing and health.
·  Houses and city roads.
·  Climate, temperature, humidity, winds, sunlight and health.
·  Health problems in professional environments.
·  Environmental pollutants and health problems.
·  Contagious diseases, epidemics and illegal emigration, sterilization, disinfection, antiseptics. Introduction to demography, changes of population, birth control, abortions and immigration.
·  Contribution of hygiene to human development and prosperity.
·  Health systems in advanced countries.
·  Obligations of states and of citizens.
·  Emergency treatment of sudden loss of consciousness, heart failure, stroke, colici of urinary, gastrointestinal system and other acute pain syndromes.
·  First aids in convulsive situations, apnoea, hyperpyrexia and bone fractures, as well as other common cases of emergency, up to the moment the medical assistance is present, or the arrival of the ambulance.
·  Teaching simple and fairly safe operations, like intramuscular or subcutaneous injections or various types of resuscitation.
·  Laboratory work: Determination of microbial load of milk; Determination of milk lipids; Examination of city water quality; Microscopic and chemical examination of clothing fibres; Determination of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd) or polychrorophenyl in environmental samples; Performing intramuscular and subcutaneous injections; Demonstration and exercising artificial respiration and other resuscitating actions.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the effect of food, diet and nutritional habits on health.
  2. Explain the effect of the drinking (city) water on human health.
  3. Explain the characteristics required for the city water, how it can be controlled and the means of water processing.
  4. Describe the requirements for city air and the effects of climate, sun, humidity on health.
  5. Describe the ways to prevent pollution (air, water, soil) and consequences of pollution.
  6. Describe the basics about demography, births-reproduction, illnesses, mortality-morbidity, immigration.
  7. Describe the basics about health organisations in relation to education and wealth.
  8. Describe the various health systems in advanced countries.
  9. Offer fairly professionally first aids in cases brought to their prospective pharmacy, or at any place at the absence of a medical doctor, e.g. accidents of various types, heart problems, stroke, various colici, apnoea, hyperpyrexia, various bone fractures.
  10. Perform medical-nursing operations, e.g. intramuscular and subcutaneous injections or resuscitation.

PHA306: Μοριακή Φαρμακολογία

Course Contents

Molecular and biochemical aspects of drug action. Mechanisms of drug action at cellular and molecular level. Drug receptors, nature and structure, drug-receptor interactions, mechanisms of cellular process activation, how the message is received. Types of drug-receptor (drug-enzyme) interactions. Ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors. Action of drugs on proteins. Action of drugs on enzymes. Modulation of enzyme activity, isozymes. Neurotransmitters, hormones. Agonists, antagonists, partial and invert agonists. Drug action on DNA, RNA. Applications of molecular biology and genetic engineering in pharmacy. Stereochemical factors in pharmacological action. Drug metabolizing enzymes. Molecular pharmacology of free radicals. Oxidative stress and resistance of the organism. Cell death, cell necrosis, cell apoptosis-programmed cell death. Drug molecules with improved action on receptors. Fate of drug molecules in the organism, from the molecular pharmacological point of view. Drugs that act without interacting with receptors.
Laboratory Work: Individual or small group experiments involving the preparation of liver microsomes, oxidation of hepatic microsomal membranes and action of antioxidants
, in vitro metabolism of erythromycin and 4-nitrophenol by microsomes.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the molecular mechanism of action for the most important drugs.
  2. Identify the nature of drug receptors and the different types of them.
  3. State the kinetics of drug – receptor/enzyme interactions.
  4. Distinguish the molecular role of neurotransmitters and hormones.
  5. Analyse the future role of genetic engineering in Pharmacy.
  6. Analyse a clear idea on the basic, molecular and chemical, concepts of phenomena like drug metabolism, biologic and oxidative stress.

PHA307: Φαρμακευτική Χημεία Ι

Course Contents

·  A pharmacochemical presentation, including names and structure, synthetic pathways, origin and extraction-isolation, physical, chemical, biological properties, purity control, identification, quantitative determination, uses and doses, of the following groups of drug molecules: vitamins, hormones and related compounds, chemotherapeutics, antibiotics, other antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoal and antifungal compounds. Anticancer drugs. Diuretic and other drugs acting on the genitourinary system. Local anaesthetics, antihistaminics (H1, H2, H3), antidiabetics. Drugs acting on the Autonomic Nervous System, cholinergic agonists and antagonists, sympathetic agonists and antagonists, drugs acting on neuromuscular junctions and autonomic ganglia. Drugs acting on the cardiovascular system, blood pressure, dyslipidemias. Atheromatosis and other blood pathologic conditions. Drugs acting on arrhythmias.
·  Molecular mechanism of action of the above groups, side effects, fate in the organism with emphasis on drug metabolism, structure-activity relationships. (Representative individual compounds used frequently, some compounds important for historical reasons or serving as examples are examined in the above detailed way).
·  A structure-activity relationship study and conclusions are drawn for each particular compound group. Ways of conversion of each of the important drug molecules in the body (drug metabolism) are studied in details. Emphasis to drugs against diseases of modern societies and those frequently seen in the population.
·  Laboratory work: Synthesis and quantitative determination of acetylsalicylic acid, Synthesis and identification of benzocaine, Synthesis and identification of tetraethylammonium bromide, Synthesis and identification of a dihydropyridine derivative, use of the Hansztch reaction, Synthesis and identification of paracetamol, Synthesis, identification and quantitative determination of sulphanilamide, Synthesis and identification of hymechromone, Detection of S, N and halogens in organic compounds, Quantitative determination of ascorbic acid, glycerol, nicotinamide, saccharin sodium, procaine hydrochloride, chloramphenicol.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the chemistry and the synthesis of drug molecules.
  2. Identify the physical and chemical properties of drugs, and the way to treat them.
  3. Recognise the biological properties, and acquire the therapeutic potential of drugs.
  4. Analyse the structural changes (fate) of the molecule in the body, and the duration of action, the probability of bioactivation or biointoxication.
  5. Analyse the relationships between action and structural and physicochemical characteristics.

PHA308: Φαρμακευτική Τεχνολογία Ι

Course Contents

Simple pharmacotechnological procedures performed in the pharmacy laboratory, e.g. infusions, decoctions, solutions, syrups, elixirs, ointments, creams, emulsions, suppositories, tablets, extracts, tinctures, reading, checking, properly filling and keeping prescriptions, kinds of prescriptions.
How drugs and chemicals are arranged and kept safely in the pharmacy and other places like drug whole-sale stores, clinics, etc., where drugs, poisons and chemicals are stored.
Pharmacopoeia, Pharmaceutical Codex and National Formulary, content, objectives, consultation and use.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, principles of self medication, role and responsibilities of the pharmacist. Criteria for setting the list of OTC drugs, e.g. active materials, pathologic condition, pharmaceutical forms. Arrangement of drugs and other substances in the pharmacy.
Laboratory Work: Individual or small group experiments involving filling a prescription, the preparation of: an infusion, a decoction, an ointment, a cream, an emulsion, iodine tincture; and consulting and using pharmacopeia
.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain how to prepare, keep, store and apply the pharmacotechnological preparations made in the pharmacy.
  2. Recognise how to fill prescriptions and everything about them.
  3. Distinguish how to arrange and keep safely and conveniently drug products, narcotics and toxic products included.
  4. Analyse what a pharmacopoeia is, its content, objectives and use.
  5. Apply everything about the over-the-counter drugs.

PHA309: Φαρμακολογία Ι

Course Contents

General rules of pharmacodynamics and chemotherapeutics, similarities and differences.
Introduction to drug action and therapeutics, drug resistance and sensitivity to drugs. Mechanisms of drug action and use.
Vitamins, hormones.
Drugs acting on the Autonomic Nervous System and neuromuscular junctions.
Drugs acting on the respiratory system.
Drugs acting on the gastrointestinal system, including hepatocholic section, pancreas-insulin, glucagon and diabetes.
Drugs acting on the genitourinary system and on the skin.
Inflammation and drugs acting in inflammatory conditions, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antihistamines.
Chemotherapeutic drugs, acting against cancer, bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, worms. Disinfectants, insecticides.
Elements of Pharmacogenetics.
Elements of experimentally produced pathologic conditions.
Laboratory Work: Individual or small group experiments involving
the actions of a diuretic, an analgesic, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, an antimicrobial drug, the investigation of antihistaminic drugs (H1 and H2 inhibitors) and the investigation of drug resistance.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the biological and pharmacological properties of most common drugs.
  2. Recognise how to find experimentally the sort of action acquired by a compound.
  3. Distinguish the action of a compound at the level of tissue, organ or whole organism.
  4. Analyse the possible or prospective therapeutic application of a compound.

PHA310: Φαρμακευτική Ανοσολογία & Ανοσοχημεία

Course Contents

·  Introduction to immunity-immunology and immunochemistry.
·  Components of the immune system. Function of organs and cells of the immune system. Antibodies and complement antibody preparation. Cellular responses in immunity.
·  Antibodies as drugs and drug carriers. Commercial antibodies used as drugs.
·  Chemo-immunotherapy, Radio-immunotherapy.
·  Hypersensitivity and drug allergy. Humoral and cellular immunodeficiency.
·  Cytokines, e.g. interleukins, interferons, and immunotherapy.
·  Infectious diseases. Vaccines, immune response, duration of immunity, types of vaccines, technology of vaccines. Immunological agents as drugs, antibodies. Immunodiagnostics and immunoassays. Inflammation and role of the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
·  Chemistry of antigens, immunoglobulins and antibodies. Antibody – antigen interactions, e.g. precipitation, agglutination reactions. Biologic – biochemical activities of antibodies e.g. complement fixation.
·  Autoimmune diseases. Transplantations. Pregnancy, cancer, nutrition and immunity.
·  Laboratory: Production of antibodies in rabbits; Immunoprecipitation in diagnostics; Inflammation and anti-inflammatory action.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Recognise the immune system, its components, function and molecular biology, as well as its chemistry.
  2. State why it fails sometimes.
  3. Distinguish the role of various immune cells, anti-inflammatory and inflammatory agents.
  4. Explain about the production of antibiotics, vaccines, their technology and use.
  5. Analyse the use of antibodies in therapeutics and how to develop drugs targeting certain cells or tissues.
  6. Analyse the use of antibodies in immunotherapy and diagnostics.

PHA401: Φαρμακευτική Χημεία ΙΙ

Course Contents

·  Synthetic pathways, extraction-isolation, physical, chemical, biological properties, purity and quality control, identification, quantitative determination, molecular mode of action, side effects, fate in the organism – drug metabolism, structure-activity relationships, therapeutic uses and doses of drugs acting on the Central Nervous System, i.e. general anaesthetics, hypnotics, antiepileptics, anxiolytics, neuroleptics (drugs acting against mania and psychoses), antidepressants, centrally acting muscle relaxants, antiparkinsonian drugs.
·  Drugs acting on neurodegenerative diseases, mainly on Senile Dementia Alzheimer’s type.
·  Opioids and other centrally acting analgesics. Opioid antagonists.
·  Introduction to addiction. Agents used in detoxication and addiction therapy. Central nervous system stimulants (purines, niketamide). Drugs acting on migraine, vertigo and emesis, cough, sneezing and hiccups. Drugs affecting appetite and obesity, Cycloogygenase inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents (non steroidal), analgesics and antipyretics.
·  Lipoxygenase inhibitors. Psychotoxic and psychedelic drugs.
·  Tutorial: Discussion and problem solving.
·  Laboratory work: Synthesis of phenothiaizine, Synthesis of phenytoin, Identification of compounds acting on CNS with Thin Layer Chromatography, Detection of S and Cl (ionic or covalently bonded) in chlorpromazine, Qualitative and quantitative determination of methanol and ethanol by GLC or HPLC, Determination of chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride, Identification of unknown drug by infrared spectroscopy.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the synthesis of the important drug molecules used for pathologic conditions concerning CNS.
  2. Identify the physical and chemical properties of drugs acting on CNS and ways to handle them.
  3. Recognise the biological properties that give the therapeutic potential to this group of drugs.
  4. Distinguish the structural changes (i.e. metabolism) and fate of this group of molecules in the organism, the duration of action, the possibility of biodetoxication or biotoxication.
  5. Analyse the relationships between action and structural and physicochemical characteristics.
  6. Analyse characteristic molecules used illegally as narcotic and addictive agents, from the pharmacochemical point of view.

PHA402: Φαρμακευτική Τεχνολογία ΙΙ

Course Contents

·  Solid pharmaceutical preparations, tablets (simple, coated, enteric coated, effervescent), capsules, lozenges. Semisolid forms, foams, ointments, creams, (tooth) pastes, suppositories. Liquid forms, solutions, syrups, elixirs, liniments. Sterile forms, ophthalmic preparations, injectables,
·  Preparations administered to the respiratory system (by inhalation), liquids-solutions (by nebulization), solids-fine powders (by special applicators). Transdermal pharmaceutical forms (fentanyl, nicotine, hormones), enhancers of transdermal absorption. Excipients and other assisting materials are described technologically, in addition to the used active ingredients.
·  The technical procedures, e.g. granulation. The mechanical, physical, physicochemical, properties required of the active drug or any of the intermediates up to the final product, and the specifications of each of the ingredients, as well as of the final products are set and methods of control and assessment.
·  Antimicrobial compounds used in Pharmaceutical Technology and sterilization methods, as well as the microbial load and contamination are determined according to the case and needs. Design and preparation of solid state forms of controlled release.
Laboratory work: Preparation of a mixture for effervescent tablets, Determination of resistance of tablets to pressure, Determination of tablets dissolution, Examination of sterility of injectable preparations and determination of microbial load of an ophthalmic solution (collyre).

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Recognise well the common pharmaco-technological forms.
  2. Recognise the way of preparation of these forms.
  3. Recognise the techniques of testing the correct preparation of these forms.
  4. State the technological and physical properties the formulations should acquire.
  5. State the common excipients and their physicochemical properties.
  6. Distinguish how sterilisation can be achieved and tested.
  7. Analyse how the transdermal absorption of drugs can be facilitated.

PHA403: Φαρμακευτική Ανάλυση ΙΙ και Έλεγχος Φαρμάκων

Course Contents

·  Atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis, theoretical basis and applications. Thin layer (TLC), Gas-liquid (GLC), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC conjugated to mass spectrograph. Reversed phase TLC and HPLC. Chromatographic systems, development and improvements. Assessment of chromatograms. Applications in pharmaceutical analysis. Purity, stability control. Determination of active materials, excipients and other additives. Statistical processing of results. Reliability of the applied methods. Comparison of chromatographic methods, as well as of these methods with other analytical techniques, e.g. spectroscopic. Validation of chromatogram quality. Development and optimisation of chromatographic results. Application of the above mentioned methods in the analysis of pharmaceutical forms or in biological fluids, in the service of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology.
·  Pharmacopeia and methods described and used in Pharmacy. Principles of quality assurance and reliability of analytical trials. Methods for quality and stability control of pharmaceutical products. Physical, chemical, microbiological control tests. Chemistry, technology, efficiency of packaging materials for pharmaceutical products (protection from air, light, humidity) and contamination of the pharmaceutical product by these materials. Technological studies on packaging materials. Chemistry and Technology of artificial ageing of drug products and quality control of ageing and stability.
·  Bioequivalence, bioavailability, criteria for comparative assessment of more pharmaceutical products.
·  Special care and study of bioactive compounds with narrow safety margin, e.g. lithium, diphenylhydantoins.
·  Laboratory:
Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography for mixtures which cannot be easily separated, Combination of chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques for the determination of the constituents of a pharmaceutical product (TLC-UV and HPLC-UV), Acceleration of ageing of a product by heat or radiation, Detection of the products of an aged pharmaceutical product (TLC, GLC, HPLC, UV-vis), Study and application of a determination of the European Pharmacopoeia, Determination of water in a technological product by the Karl Fischer method.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify various analytical techniques to drug analysis and control, e.g. spectroscopic, chromatographic, etc.
  2. Identify various analytical methods assessing the purity of formulations.
  3. State the stability of pharmaceutical products, active ingredients, excipients and compounds like preservatives, taste and smell improving agents.
  4. Analyse the reliability of various techniques in Pharmaceutical Analysis, including statistical processing.
  5. Analyse the application of analytical methods using biological fluids, so that they can be used in Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology.
  6. Employ the Pharmacopoeia in drug analysis and control.
  7. Apply techniques for artificial ageing of pharmaceutical products or active materials, and accelerating ageing techniques.
  8. Apply the preparation of drugs containing active ingredients with narrow safety margin.

PHA404: Φαρμακογνωσία

Course Contents

·  Most important and extensively used in Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Industry and Perfumery plant products, and their chemical constituents, i.e. primary metabolites such as carbohydrates and derivatives, e.g. glycosides, proteins, lipids, and secondary metabolites, such as terpenoids, steroids, polyphenols (phenolic acids, alcohols, esters, flavonoids, coumarins, antraquinones, tannins), essential oils, alkaloids, pigments, vitamins. Appearance, anatomical, histochemical characteristics of each plant product, distribution in the plant, binomial botanical name of the producing plant and its family. Description of the plant and its phytogeography. Action and use of the plant products and their main active constituents. Control and assays for detecting adulteration, i.e. physical state, appearance, anatomical characteristics and chemical analysis. Emphasis will be given to plants used as crude therapeutic agents for extraction of the active material, or used as such, e.g. for obtaining anticancer, antiviral or antineurodegenerative drugs.
·  Non conventional methods, e.g. plant cell cultures, hairy roots and genetic engineering, for amelioration of medicinal plants. Social, ethical and other questions arising from the human intervention in the plant cell genetic material. Differences between plant and animal cells in this respect. Medicinal and aromatic plants of Cyprus. Research and efforts for adaptation of foreign plants of high economic value, as sources of medicine or aromatic constituents, to the environmental conditions of Cyprus, e.g. climate, temperature, humidity and chemical constitution of the soil.
·  Safe use of herbal medicinal products by the pharmacists and Regulatory Affairs: Directive of EU 2001/83 EC as amended by 2004/24/EC
(European Medicines Agency – EMA) and its Committee responsible for Herbals (HMPC- Herbal Medicinal Products Committee)
·  Laboratory: Preparation of an extract from a pharmaceutical plant containing, e.g. alkaloids, anthraquinones sugars and/or flavonoids, saponins; Separation of a mixture and identification of at least three alkaloids; Field work, finding and identification of at least eight medicinal or aromatic plants; Steam distillation or extraction of essential oil from aromatic plants; Chemical, physicochemical and physical characterisation of the obtained essential oils.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify most of the known common pharmaceutical plants and the main chemical components of selected important medicinal plants.
  2. Identify the characteristic phytochemical analytical methods for detecting the main chemical constituents of the medicinal plant parts, e.g. folia cannabis and recognise the basic methods of extracting the main active secondary metabolites from pharmaceutical plants.
  3. State the origin and Phytogeography of several pharmaceutical plants, e.g. Zea mays, America, Scilla maritima, Greece and Cyprus.
  4. Distinguish the analytical methods to control the quality of herbal medicinal products in accordance with the European Pharmacopoeia.
  5. Distinguish the common adulterations of herbal medicinal products and the methods to control them.
  6. Employ the methods for improving the quality of herbal medicinal products based on the conditions of cultivation (Good Cultivation Practice).
  7. Employ basic principles for the safe use of plants.

PHA405: Φαρμακολογία ΙΙ

Course Contents

·  Study of pharmacologic action and therapeutic uses of drugs acting on cardiovascular and blood systems, e.g. myocardium, cardiac glycosides, arrhythmias, hypertension, dyslipidemias, aneamias. Autacoids, antihistaminics (H1, H2, H3).
·  Drugs acting directly or indirectly on cycloxygenases and lipoxygenases.
·  Drugs for autoimmune diseases.
·  Neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Drugs acting on the central nervous system. Anaesthetics, hypnotics, antiepileptics, antiparkinsonians. Opioid analgesics, central antitussives.
·  Drugs used in psychiatric disorders, maniac conditions, neuroleptics-tranquilizing drugs, antianxiety drugs. Drugs used in depressive disorders. New serotonin reuptake inhibitors, new monoamine axidase inhibitors. Central nervous system stimulants, purines, retalin. Psychotoxic agents, tetrahydrocannabinols, cannabis; LSD; mescaline.
·  Drugs used in appetite modulation and obesity.
·  Antimigraine drugs.
·  Drugs used in neurodegenerative disorders and aging.
·  Cocaine and other local anaesthetics.
·  Experimental models of diseases, e.g. diabetes mellitus, depression.
·  Laboratory Work: Sedation and/or excitation of central nervous system (CNS), Role of neurotransmitters in CNS, The morphologic characteristics of stress (thymus, spleen, adrenals), Producing neurodegeneration, e.g. Parkinsonism, Senile Dementia Alzheimer’s Type, Demonstration, using special anatomic charts, of brain areas, neuronal connections, neuronal network and the established circuits.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the biologic and pharmacologic properties of most common drugs used for the cardiovascular and central nervous system.
  2. Recognise the function of neurons, neuronal transmission and the way ions and transmitters work in the CNS.
  3. State elements of emotion and cognition function and the alterations in the degenerated brain.
  4. Analyse, in a general way, what homeostasis and biological stress are.
  5. Employ an experimental model of some pathologic conditions.

PHA406: Κλινική Φαρμακευτική & Αλληλεπιδράσεις Φαρμάκων

Course Contents

This course prepares, assisted by the rest of the pharmacy curriculum, a prospective pharmacist, especially clinical pharmacist, to assist and collaborate with the medical doctor in the hospital ward, in problems of pharmacotherapy, setting of therapeutic scheme, drug doses, drug interactions and determination of drug and main drug metabolite levels in biological fluids (blood, urine, feces, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva).The following are included:
·  Principles of pathophysiology of diseases and therapeutics.
·  Approaches in pharmacotherapy, decision of the appropriate therapeutic scheme, drug doses.
·  Role of age, sex, race, body weight, diet, pregnancy, lactation, diabetes, renal, liver heart dysfunctions.
·  Multi drug therapies.
·  Pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, metabolism excretion), pharmacodynamic drug-drug and drug-food interactions.
·  Correlation of structure and physicochemical properties with therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs.
·  Chemical analysis, detection and quantitative determination of drugs and drug metabolites in biological fluids.
Laboratory Work: Determination of a drug, e.g. aspirin or paracetamol, and the main metabolite in urine (by GLC or HPLC), Determination of a drug, e.g. quinine or caffeine, in blood, Investigation of the simultaneous administration of a dose (0.1 mg) of digitoxin and of a high dose (1.5 g) of aluminium hydroxide, Investigation of the effect of zoxazolamine, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, administered after a 4-day treatment with Phenobarbital, Series of 2h visit to a hospital ward, with a physician, and discussion with the responsible teacher in the presence of the physician.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Recognise in collaboration with the physician in the hospital ward in problems of pharmacotherapy, of setting the therapeutic scheme, doses, of drug interactions.
  2. Recognise the drugs and their main metabolites in biological fluids.
  3. State fairly well (pharmaco) therapeutics and decision making concerning therapeutic schemes and doses, which could be suggested by the physician.
  4. Analyse the role, which sometimes is important, of age, sex, race, body weight, diet, pregnancy, lactation and various disease conditions.
  5. Analyse the importance and dangers of multidrug therapies.

PHA407: Εισαγωγή στη Φαρμακευτική Βιοτεχνολογία

Course Contents

·  Global significance of biotechnology, categories of biotechnology processes and products.
·  Genomics, proteomics, metabolomics.
·  Essentials of recombinant DNA technology. Production of recombinant DNA, gene mapping, cloning systems and gene libraries.
·  Mutation detection techniques.
·  Protein and enzyme engineering, theory and methods. Production and purification of pharmaceutical proteins and monoclonal antibodies and their applications. Principles of genetic engineering, specific production of agents useful in pharmacy and therapeutics, secondary plant metabolites, vectors of genetic material.
·  Genetic modifications of organisms used in pharmaceutical sciences. Gene knock-out animal models and transgenic animals.
·  Genetic diseases and gene therapy. Pharmacogenetics.
·  Tissue cultures. Cellular assays in drug discovery. Fermentation technology. Bioreactors. From the human genome to new drugs, possible prospects.
·  Ethical issues.
·  Laboratory Work: Cell culture, tissue culture, assay of drug action using hepatocyte cultures, plasmid DNA extraction from bacteria, PCR technique, biofermentation – biofermentors

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify what biotechnology is, its basic rules, applications, contribution to society as a whole and to health and pharmacy in particular.
  2. Recognise the molecular mechanisms of DNA cloning, methods for creating recombinant DNA molecules and applications for diagnosis and treatment of disease.
  3. State the types of DNA library; about genomic library.
  4. Understand PCR applications and DNA fingerprinting.
  5. Distinguish the basics of animal research and tissue culture applications.
  6. Employ the basics of fermentation technology and the manufacturing of commercial biotechnology products.
  7. Employ the legal and ethical perspectives.

PHA408: Τοξικολογία

Course Contents

·  Acquaintance of biochemical and molecular toxicology. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of the toxic actions of substances, heavy metals, organic solvents, agrochemicals, food additives, environmental pollutants, food poisoning, drugs. Symptoms of poisoning in various tissues and organs, treatment, antidotes. Radiation toxicity, nuclear accidents, radioactive substances disposition. Genotoxic agents, teratogenesis, mutagenesis, fetal toxicity. Doping and doping control. Chemical, biological and nuclear war. Clinical, industrial, environmental, professional, forensic and analytical toxicology. Methods of detecting poisonous agents. Detection of poisons and their metabolites by classical and by instrumental analytical techniques. Detection of function of vital organs, e.g. liver, kidney, in chronic poisoning or too long medication, measuring biochemical parameters, such as SGPT, SGOT, LAD, BUN, creatinine. Toxicokinetics. Determination of lethal dose. Reasons of poisoning, accidental, suicidal, professional, criminal. Professional biological sampling, of sampling air, earth, water reserves, sea water for analytical toxicological reasons.
·  Laboratory Work: Poisoning by heavy metals, e.g. lead, mercury, and protection by antidotes, e.g. EDTA, dimercaprol; Detection of intoxication by an alkaloid, e.g. atropine, strychnine and protection by general or specific antidotes; Toxicity of organic solvents, e.g. carbon tetrachloride-caused hepatotoxicity and mechanism of the protective action of proadifen.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the symptoms of poisoning by the commonest toxic agents.
  2. Recognise the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of toxicity from poisons.
  3. State the various branches of toxicology and their objectives.
  4. Distinguish about sampling and analysis for detection the poison that caused the toxic action.
  5. Distinguish the general and specific antidotes for common poisons and the mechanism of protection.
  6. Analyse the mechanism of the toxic action of chemical, microbiological and nuclear factors and ways of treatment.
  7. Analyse dangers evolving from polluted environment and ways of toxic actions.
  8. Analyse dangerous chemicals in food.

PHA409: Χημεία και Τεχνολογία Βιομηχανικής Φαρμακευτικής

Course Contents

·  Organisation of a pharmaceutical industry: Chemical section, production of the active principle compounds. Formulation section, solid, liquid, injectable forms. Analytical control section. Sterile area.
·  Scaling-up process, from laboratory to pilot plant quantities. Massive production. Problems and solutions of industrial-mass production. Prevention and assessment of trans contamination. Washing and cleaning machines. Sterilization, sterile area, disinfection, control and assessment.
·  Setting of the whole plant. Personnel, education, skills, consciousness, health, health safeguard. Care and protection of the pharmaceutical plant environment. Good manufacturing practice. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the product quality. Development of novel pharmacotechnological forms and delivery systems. Research section, design of novel molecules, of improved or novel technological products – drug releasing forms. Innovations in analytical methods. Administration and Product promotion sections and follow-up.
·  The patent office for the new molecules and the innovative delivery systems will be presented.
·  Laboratory Work: Visit to pharmaceutical plants. Students, in groups, will stay, observe and then work for 2-3 days in the various sections of the factory; Visit to the state drug control offices and discussion with the officials of each section; Visit to a cosmetic factory or to factory for aromatic products, e.g. essential oils and perfumery business.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the different sections of pharmaceutical industry and the function of each section.
  2. Recognise the importance of the application of good manufacturing practice.
  3. Recognise the interaction of various sections in a pharmaceutical factory in a harmonious manner.
  4. Recognise how the starting-incoming material must be kept and treated.
  5. State how the final products must be released.
  6. Distinguish the function of the patent section of the company.
  7. Analyse the importance of the research section in a pharmaceutical company for designing and developing new pharmacomolecules and new pharmacotechnological products.
  8. Apply the way a pharmaceutical factory works with the minimal negative effects on the environment.

PHA410: Σχεδιασμός, Ανακάλυψη & Ανάπτυξη Φαρμάκων

Course Contents

·  Organisation of a pharmaceutical industry: Chemical section, production of the active principle compounds. Formulation section, solid, liquid, injectable forms. Analytical control section. Sterile area.
·  Scaling-up process, from laboratory to pilot plant quantities. Massive production. Problems and solutions of industrial-mass production. Prevention and assessment of trans contamination. Washing and cleaning machines. Sterilization, sterile area, disinfection, control and assessment.
·  Setting of the whole plant. Personnel, education, skills, consciousness, health, health safeguard. Care and protection of the pharmaceutical plant environment. Good manufacturing practice. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the product quality. Development of novel pharmacotechnological forms and delivery systems. Research section, design of novel molecules, of improved or novel technological products – drug releasing forms. Innovations in analytical methods. Administration and Product promotion sections and follow-up.
·  The patent office for the new molecules and the innovative delivery systems will be presented.
·  Laboratory Work: Prediction, applying theoretical calculations, of pKa, lipophilicity (log P) and topological polar surface area (TPSA) of bioactive molecules; Find the pharmacophore of local anaesthetics. Show that one of them acquires local anaesthetic action. Discuss the optimisation performed starting from cocaine to common local anaesthetic; Find the pharmacophore of morphine-like analgesics. Demonstrate that one of them has the analgesic activity. Discuss the performed pharmacophore optimisation and indicate the lead compound; Docking of molecules to the active site of receptors; Demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of methylene blue, a synthetic dye; Suggest structural modifications on a centrally acting analgesic in order to restrict its activity to the intestine. Show lack of CNS action; Find a compound that would act as an antidote to paracetamol hepatotoxicity, based on the mechanism of the hepatotoxic action of paracetamol overdose; Synthesis of a compound for protection against paracetamol hepatotoxicity, based on rational drug design.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Explain the basics of the historical perspectives of drug discovery; the difference in discovering drugs in antiquity, serentipity, the try-and-error- method, the iatrochemistry era, that of synthetic dyes, massive pharmacological testing and antibiotics.
  2. Identify the meaning and use of lead compound, pharmacophore, lead optimisation, drug receptor-fitting and docking, molecular graphics, receptor mapping.
  3. Identify the exact meaning, applications, profitable use of lead compound, pharmacophore, lead optimisation.
  4. Identify the meaning and use of important bases of rational drug design.
  5. Distinguish, applying theoretical calculations, pKa, lipophilicity (log P) and topological polar surface area (TPSA) of bioactive molecules.
  6. Distinguish the docking of molecules to the active site of receptors and the meaning of receptor targeting and QSAR.
  7. Distinguish the contribution of clinical phases I, II, III and pharmacovigilance.
  8. Analyse advantages of the massive pharmacological screening and the approach of rational drug design and have a fair idea on the prospects for the future in the field of drug discovery and development.

PHA501: Χημεία & Τεχνολογία Καλλυντικών

Course Contents

·  Anatomical construction of skin, skin-associated structures (nails, hair) and their function.
·  Chemistry of the ingredients of cosmetic preparations, organic solvents, vaseline, lanolin, waxes, oils.
·  Essential oils and other aromatic substances.
·  Technology of cosmetic products, emulsions, solutions, creams, ointments, powders, hair dyes.
·  Preparations for the hair, face, mouth, head, body, nails. Sun screens.
·  Preservatives, e.g. antioxidants, used in cosmetics, “active” ingredients of cosmetics.
·  Contribution of cosmetology to health, beauty, psychosocial life.
·  Similarities and differences between drugs and cosmetics.
·  Cosmetics and the national and European lows governing preparation – manufacturing, promotion and market.
·  Safety in the use of cosmetics.
·  Laboratory: Preparation of a cold cream, Preparation of a hand lotion, Preparation of Eau de Cologne;Preparation of a medicinal soap, Protection of an oily cosmetic preparation from oxidation, by antioxidants and selection of the correct agent, Detection of mercury used in a cosmetic preparation for the skin.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the anatomical construction of skin and related structures (hair, nails).
  2. Recognise the chemistry of various ingredients of the cosmetic preparations, like solvents, vaseline, lanoline, waxes, oils, essential oils and other aromatic substances.
  3. Recognise the technology of cosmetic products, e.g. emulsions, solutions, creams, etc.
  4. Recognise the preparations for hair, face, mouth, head, body, nails.
  5. Recognise the chemistry, technology and properties of sunscreens.
  6. Identify the types of preservatives used in cosmetology, their chemistry, technology and contribution.
  7. Distinguish the difference between drugs and cosmetics.
  8. Employ the Cyprus and EU lows governing cosmetic production and market.

PHA502: Φαρμακευτική Νομοθεσία & Ηθική

Course Contents

·  Laws governing the production and control of drugs and medicines in pharmaceutical industry; the establishment of a community pharmacy;
pharmaceutical education; the whole trade of drugs and medicines
·  The European Union legislation on actions concerning drugs and medicines
·  Legislation of drug illegal production and trafficking, particularly of narcotics
·  Ethics and moral rules, in any position a pharmacist practices his/her profession
·  WHO role and function
·  Laws governing clinical trials of medicines
·  EU offices on drugs, i.e. EMEA, organisation and function
·  The organisation and function of the State Drug Control Offices, the Cyprus “Pharmaceutical Services”
·  Process required for the approval of new drugs and medicines
·  Disposal of expired or partly used drugs
·  The role of the pharmacist in a community and hospital pharmacy as well as in the society.
·  Laboratory: Visit to the site of Cyprus Pharmaceutical Services, visit to the hospital pharmacy and discussion about the drug and medicine function in the hospital organization, visit to the Ministry of Health, the particular office for drugs, medicines and epidemics

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Outline and identify the pharmaceutical legislation of Cyprus and of the European Union (Directives and Regulations) concerning: medicinal products development, clinical trials in human subjects and investigational medicinal products, production and control of medicinal products, the approval procedure, wholesale and dispensing of medicinal products, pharmacovigilance, organisation, committees and objectives of European Medicines Agency (EMEA), orphan medicinal products, herbal medicinal products, medicinal products for advance therapies, paediatric medicines and relative incentives, the disposal of expired or partly used drugs, patents in drugs and medicinal appliances or devices.
  2. Identify general principles of ethics in drug development.
  3. Explain the principles of ethics for clinical trials using medicinal products.
  4. Explain the politics and ethics in national prices of medicinal products.
  5. Identify problems in the developing world and morality.
  6. Recognise the role of the World Health Organisation against diseases and high drug prices.
  7. Explain attempts for low-cost, safe and efficient medicinal products, handling and disposing expired and partly used medicines.

PHA503: Προετοιμασία για Διπλωματική Εργασία

Course Contents

·  Selection of the project supervisor.
·  Collaboration of the student with the project supervisor.
·  Selection and identification of the project subject.
·  Guiding and familiarisation with literature survey.
·  Information on the specific techniques to be applied for the project.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Identify the trends in the modern pharmaceutical sciences.
  2. Recognise details in specific pharmaceutical sciences.
  3. Distinguish research methods of particular pharmaceutical subject.
  4. Employ ways of literature search.
  5. Apply some specialised techniques used in pharmaceutical research.

PHA505: Αρχές Διαχείρισης και Οικονομικών Φαρμακευτικών Επιχειρήσεων

Course Contents

General Management issues
·  Organisational behaviour
·  Leadership
·  Managing teams

Marketing in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry
·  Marketing in the Health Service Sector
·  Marketing planning
·  Marketing research
·  The marketing environment
·  Understanding users of Health Services (consumer behaviour)
·  Developing the marketing mix in the context of the pharmaceutical industry
·  Building customer relationships

Economic principles
·  Economic problem of scarcity
·  Opportunity cost
·  Market Systems
·  Theory of demand and supply
·  Theory of utility
·  Theory of Elasticity
·  The law of diminishing returns/ returns to scale
·  Perfect and imperfect markets
·  Types of costs
·  Monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition
·  Measuring economic activity
·  Contemporary economic problems

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Outline the basic principles of management in the health care and pharmaceutical business.
  2. Identify the general management, marketing, financing and economics of the mentioned institutions.
  3. Justify the importance of the organisational behaviour and leadership, the managing teams, strategy of marketing and production management, finance and accounting.
  4. Demonstrate honesty, integrity, professionalism and personal responsibility in response to a changing environment.
  5. Outline the basic principles of economics related to drugs, cosmetics and health care products and institution.

PHA506: Διπλωματική Εργασία

Course Contents

·  Completion of the required literature search on the specific project.
·  Advancement in the major part of the experimental or other practical work for the project.
·  Submit written work based on diploma project guidelines set by the department

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Analyse and update the literature concerning the project.
  2. Apply experimental or other practical work for the subject.

PHA504: Πρακτική Εξάσκηση Ι

Course Contents

The practicing students work under the supervision of a qualified pharmacist, responsible to supervise but also test the students on every activity legally conducted. Dispensing included.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Practical training of duration of 6 months completed in a registered private or public pharmacy.

PHA507: Πρακτική Εξάσκηση ΙΙ

Course Contents

Practical training (duration of 6 months) performed in a registered private or public pharmacy or other institutions that include the following activities: Preparation of the pharmaceutical form of medicinal products; Manufacture and testing of medicinal products; Testing of medicinal products in a laboratory for the testing of medicinal products; Storage, preservation and distribution of medicinal products at the wholesale stage; Preparation, testing, storage and supply of medicinal products in pharmacies open to the public; Preparation, testing, storage and dispensing of medicinal products in hospitals; Provision of information and advice on medicinal products.

Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

  1. Practical training (duration of 6 months) performed in a registered private or public pharmacy or other institutions.

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